Thursday, March 7, 2013

When a Pope Flees Rome: Fatima & Other Prophecies

Benedict XVI’s resignation and the upcoming conclave to elect a new pope deserves attention of the Catholic kind, issuing from prayer, study, and action - as opposed to the (usual) yellow journalism that blows everything out of proportion. When we consider the Pope's selection of words that he - with full freedom" did "renounce" the ministry of the Bishop of Rome (etc.) - we can only take him at his word. We may or may not agree that a Pope "should" resign when he no longer feels up to the task. For now, that is a topic I will leave to other Catholic writers. Perhaps it is my practical Italian side but, in my view, the deed is done and now the Church needs a new and very holy pope.

And so, I again return to "Petrus Romanus,” Fatima and the Third Secret Vision which describes a mysterious "bishop dressed in white.” May we also keep in mind that the apparitions of the Virgin of Fatima (approved by the Church as worthy of belief) offer to mankind highly efficacious spiritual solutions which the Malachy prophecies do not?

Simply stated, Our Lady of Fatima asked for the following: Worldwide devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, papal promulgation of the Five First Saturdays of Reparation, the public dissemination of the Third Secret Text, and the collegial consecration of Russia (and Russia alone) to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.  Individual Catholics can and do respond to other Fatima requests (daily Rosary, daily duty offered in penance and for the conversion of sinners, the wearing of the Brown Scapular, conscientiously working not to offend the Lord our God any longer, and taking part in First Saturday devotions where they might be offered, or otherwise trying to privately make the intentions when the public intentions of required Confession, Holy Mass, Rosary, and 15 additional minutes on the 15 Rosary mysteries of the Redemption) . However, only a Pope can take action to fulfill the other requests of the Fatima Virgin.

In my first article on Petrus Romanus, I wrote about the most famous (and controversial) prophecies which allegedly predict a line of popes. The list was supposedly written by St. Malachy of Ireland (1094 A.D. - 1148 A.D.). The popes, listed by attributes (not by name) are said to be the “last” popes - either in historical time or the end of a certain period of time. The main problem is a question of validity, since the Malachy prophecies were supposedly "lost" for a few centuries, only to be discovered in the 16th century.

It was then that Arnold de Wyon (also spelled "Wion") claimed to have found the prophecies and published them in a very large book known as the "Lignum Vitae," which translates from Latin to English as "Ironwood Life." However, another version of the story says the prophecies were written by someone else (presumably Wyon) who gave the credit to the respected but deceased Malachy.  Another problem arises when it is claimed that St. Bernard, a good friend of St. Malachy's and in whose arms the saint died, never made any mention of Malachy’s papal prophecies. (Incidentally, there are other prophecies of St. Malachy which are not contested as truly his.)

In another of my recent articles I shared a partial list of the popes (as they appear in one book of prophecy), so I won’t repeat them here.  Instead, I'll refer only to the last two mentioned - "Gloria Olivae" (Glory of the Olive) and "Petrus Romanus" (Peter the Roman).

Long before Benedict XVI became pope, it seems that many among the Benedictines believed that "Gloria Olivae" would come from their order or somehow represent their order. Benedict XVI was not a Benedictine; he was and is an academic. As it turns out, Benedict XVI chose his papal name in honor of Pope Benedict XV (who reigned immediately after Pope St. Pius X, ascending the papal throne in 1914 and ruling during World War I) and St. Benedict of Nursia, who was founder of the Benedictines.

Interestingly enough, the Benedictine crest bears an olive branch, which is the symbol of a peace offering.  Furthermore, it is said that St. Benedict of Nursa prophesied that, shortly before the world's end, the Olivetans would lead the Catholic Church. (Technically, an Olivetan – an “olive branch” - refers to a member of the Benedictines, but some think it could also mean all those who are the spiritual children of St. Benedict. If that is true, it is then surmised that it is possible that Benedict XVI could be considered an Olivetan.)

How do some think that Benedict XVI fulfills the alleged prophecy that he is/was "the Glory of the Olive”? One could point to the act of justice which he made on behalf of the Tridentine liturgy, especially when Benedict XVI coolly stated in his Moto Propio of July 7, 2007 that it had never been “juridically abrogated.”  Certainly, this one act has done much for the Church, although it cannot be denied that access to the Tridentine Rite is still not universal, as it should be. He also extended the olive branch of peace to the SSPX, lifting the excommunications of the four living bishops (and so it follows that the SSPX should not be accused of schism, especially by those who speak of the proper and due filial obedience to the Holy Father).

In the Malachy prophecy, Petrus Romanus (in Latin, Peter the Roman) then follows Glory of the Olive: "In the final persecution of the Holy Roman Church, there will reign Petrus Romanus, who will feed his flock amid many tribulations, after which the seven-hilled city will be destroyed and the dreadful Judge will judge the people." (Some versions add the word "Finis" - i.e., "The End." This addition is also questioned – was it added simply to indicate the end of the prophecy or the end of time? Or was it added by an early printer who published the papal prophecies? Nobody knows.)

While we Catholics should be earnestly praying for a deeply holy Pope's election, it seems that conjecture of Petrus Roman’s actual identity is still arousing curiosity. For now, let's discuss a generous number of "private" prophecies that describe events surrounding a future pope (who might be Peter the Roman and/or which also may refer to “a bishop dressed in white,” as described in the Third Secret Vision).

“Everywhere there is war! Peoples and nations are pitted against each other. War, war, war! Civil and foreign wars! Mourning and death everywhere! Famine over the whole world. Will Lutetius [Paris] be destroyed? Why, O Lord, dost Thou not stop all this with Thy arm? Must also the elements be the instrument of Thy wrath? Enough, O Lord, enough! The cities are destroyed, the natural elements are set loose, the earthquakes are everywhere. But mercy, mercy for Rome! But Thou hearest not my entreaties, and Rome also collapses in the tumult. And I see the king of Rome with his Cross and his tiara, shaking the dust off his shoes, and hastening in his flight to other shores. Thy Church, O Lord, is torn apart by her own children. One camp is faithful to the fleeing Pontiff, the other is subject to the new government of Rome which has broken the Tiara. But almighty God will, in His mercy, put an end to this confusion and a new age will begin. Then, said the Spirit, this is the beginning of the End of Time.” (The source of this prophecy is unknown, but there exist many manuscript copies of it dating to the late fifth century, A.D.)

St. Hildegard of Bingen (1098 A.D. - 1179 A.D.)

St. Hildegard was "officially" canonized during Benedict XVI's papacy. (She was also proclaimed a Doctor of the Church, joining three other women who are  canonized saints and also Doctors of the Church - St. Catherine of Siena, St. Terese of Avila and St. Therese of Lisieux, commonly known as "The Little Flower of Jesus.") Coincidentally, St. Hildegard was a member of the (womens’) order of Benedictines. A very gifted woman, she was a healer and a prophetess. Now, since canonizations are not supposed to be an arbitrary process (the Church doesn't "make" saints like an auto factory "makes" cars!), it's intriguing to know that, in the centuries since her death, she was always considered a saint (and usually called one). However, and as already mentioned, only in the past year was she canonized - by Pope Benedict XVI.

Recently, it was said that Benedict XVI "turned to the writings of the 12th century visionary with her sharp critique of clergy and the church [sic] during her own 12th century milieu as a contemporary diagnosis for the sins of its priests in the global sex scandal."   In other words, St. Hildegard (like St. Catherine of Siena) was no coward and so she did not hesitate to openly correct the clergy when they deserved it.  In one of her  prophecies, St. Hildegard stated:

"The time is coming when princes and peoples will renounce the authority of Rome. Individual countries will prefer their own Church rulers to the Pope. The German Empire will be divided. Church property will be secularized. Priests will be persecuted. After the birth of Anti-Christ, heretics will preach their false doctrines undisturbed, resulting in Christians having doubts about their Holy Catholic Faith." (Did anyone else catch that last part? St. Hildegard implicitly stated that Christians are those who adhere to the Holy Catholic Faith.)

She also said, "Toward the end of the world, mankind will be purified by sufferings. This will be true especially of the clergy, who will be robbed of all property...When the clergy has adopted a simple manner of living, conditions will improve."

Now, onto other prophecies about a future pope, the dangers to the entire Church, and related subjects.

Abbot Werdin of Otranto (died 1279 A.D.)

“The great monarch and the great Pope will precede the Antichrist. The nations will be at war for four years and a great part of the world will be destroyed. The Pope will go over the sea carrying the sign of Redemption on his forehead. The great Monarch will come to restore peace and the Pope will share in the victory.”

Brother John of the Cleft Rock (1340 A.D.)

"Toward the end of the world, the tyrants and the hostile people will suddenly rob the prelates and clergy of the Church of all their possessions and grievously afflict and martyr them. The ones who heap the most abuse upon them will be held in high esteem. The clergy cannot escape these persecutions, but because of them all servants of the Church will be forced to lead an apostolic life. At that time the Pope, with the cardinals, will have to flee Rome under trying circumstances to a place where he will be unknown. He will die a cruel death in exile. The sufferings of the Church will be much greater than at any previous time in history…God will raise a holy Pope over whom the Angels will rejoice. Enlightened by God, this man will reconstruct almost the entire world through his holiness."

Blessed Tomasuccio de Foligno (1319 -1377 A.D.)

"One from beyond the mountains shall become the Vicar of God. Religious and clerics shall take part in this change. Outside the true path, there will be only disreputable men; I shrug my shoulders when the Barque of Peter is in danger and there is no one to lend it help... The schismatic shall fall into the scorn of the Italian faithful... By about twelve years shall the millennium have passed when the resplendent mantle of legitimate power shall emerge from the shadows where it was being kept by the schism. And beyond harm from the one who is blocking the door of salvation, for his deceitful schism shall have come to an end. And the Mass of the faithful shall attach itself to the worthy Shepherd, who shall extricate each one from error and restore to the Church its beauty. He shall renew it."

St. John Capestran (died in 1456 A.D.)

"The Tree shall give forth its fruits, but the destroying beast shall devour them." (Supposedly "From the Half Moon" in the St. Malachy prophesy, allegedly denoting Pope John Paul the First, who died within a month of his pontificate.)

"The brightness of the exposed countenance shall be lifted, and the faces of the proud shall fall before the face of the oppressor." (Supposedly "The Glory of the Olive")

"There shall be signs of the sun and moon when there shall be created a man stronger than any prince, and he shall renew the face of the Church. At this time, Anti-Christ shall have been trodden under foot and all the world shall enjoy the faith and peace of the Most High." (Supposedly "Peter the Roman")

Nicholas of Fluh (died in 1487 A.D.)

"The Church will sink still deeper until she will at last seem to be extinguished, and the succession of Peter and the other Apostles to have expired. After that, she will be victoriously exalted in the sight of all doubters." He (along with Dionysius Ryckel) also foresaw that "the Church will be punished because the majority of Her members - high and low - will become so perverted."

Michel de Nostredame – aka Michael of Our Lady, “Nostradamus” (16th century):

“For seven days, the great star shall be seen,
As if two Suns in the sky should appear.
The big Mastiff
(Islamic or Arab powers)
shall be howling all night
When the Pontiff shall go into exile.”
Another translation of the above prophecy is rendered:
“The great star will burn for seven days,
The cloud will cause two suns to appear.
The Mastiff will
be howling all night
When the Great Pontiff will change country.”
Helen Wallraff (died in 1801 A.D.)

"Someday a Pope will flee from Rome in company of only four cardinals and come to Koeln [Cologne]." [Coincidentally, World Youth Day 2005 took place in Cologne, in which Benedict XVI participated. During that same visit to Cologne, he also visited a Jewish synagogue. It was his first visit to his native Germany in many, many years. The prophecy above mentions that a Pope will some day flee to a place where he is unknown. Is it possible that the citizens of Cologne would not recognize the Pope, whoever he may be? One way or the other, it is difficult to answer that question with certainty.]

Venerable Anna Katerina Emmerich (1774 A.D. – 1824 A.D.)

On May 13, 1820 (Take note of the date – 97 years before the first Fatima apparition, to the day!): “I saw also the relationship between the two popes…I saw how baleful would be the consequences of this false church.” [Catholics know there cannot be two popes. What is meant by the relationship between the two popes? Was Venerable Anna Katerina seeing a vision of a reigning pope and a retired, living pope? And what does she mean by “this false church?”] Of this false church, she said: “I saw it increase in size; heretics of every kind came into the city [presumably, the city of Rome]. The local clergy grew lukewarm, and I saw a great darkness…Then, the vision seemed to extend on every side. Whole Catholic communities were oppressed, harassed, confined, and deprived of their freedom. I saw many churches close down, great miseries everywhere, wars and bloodshed. A wild and ignorant mob took to violent action. But it did not last long.”

“Once more, I saw the Church of Peter was undermined by a plan evolved by the secret sect, while storms were damaging it. [Remember Benedict XVI’s comments about steering the Barque of Peter through tempests?] But I saw also that help was coming when distress had reached its peak. I saw again the Blessed Virgin ascend on the Church and spread her mantle. I saw a Pope who was at once gentle, and very firm…I saw a great renewal, and the Church rose high in the sky.”

In August, 1820, Venerable Emmerich saw a vision that brings to mind a vision later seen by Blessed Jacinta of Fatima in 1917 (which,  at the appropriate point, I will later insert):

“I see the Holy Father in great anguish. He lives in a palace other than before and he admits only a limited number of friends near him. I fear that the Holy Father will suffer many more trials before he dies. I see that the false church of darkness is making progress, and I see the dreadful influence it has on the people. The Holy Father and the Church are verily in so great a distress that one must implore God day and night.”

In other visions from August to October, 1820, Ven. Emmerich said: “I see more martyrs, not now but in the future…I saw the secret sect relentlessly  undermining the great Church. All over the world, good and devout people, especially the clergy, were harassed, oppressed, and put into prison. I had the feeling that they would become martyrs some day. Then I saw an apparition of the Mother of God [could this be a reference to the future apparitions at Fatima?], and she said the tribulation would be very greatThe Church is in great danger. We must pray so that the Pope may not leave Rome; countless evils would result if he did. In those days, Faith will fall very low, and it will be preserved in some places only. “ [At Fatima, Our Lady introduced the Third Secret with these words: “In Portugal, the dogma of the Faith will always be preserved, etc.” This warning strongly indicates that only in parts of Portugal will “the dogma” of the Faith remain. That is, while parts of one nation in the entire world will remain faithful, it is also likely that it will also be preserved in “some places” like individual homes.]

In 1822, Ven. Emmerich also stated: “I saw the battle also. The enemies were far more numerous, but the small army of the faithful cut down whole rows [of enemy soldiers]. During the battle, the Blessed Virgin stood on a hill, wearing a suit of armor. It was a terrible war. At the end, only a few fighters for the just cause survived, but the victory was theirs.”

Blessed Anna Marie Taigi (19th century wife, mother, and mystic)
Blessed Taigi foretold the three days of world-wide darkness, which is one of two great punishments that will affect the whole earth.  What is especially interesting is that all of the following quotes were included in the documents of her Beatification:

“God will send two punishments: one will be in the form of wars, revolutions and other evils, it shall originate on earth. The other will be sent from Heaven. There shall come over the whole earth an intense darkness lasting three days and three nights. Nothing can be seen, and the air will be laden with pestilence which will claim mainly, but not only, the enemies of religion.”

“It will be impossible to use any man-made lighting during this darkness, except blessed candles. He, who out of curiosity, opens his window to look out, or leaves his home, will fall dead on the spot. During these three days, people should remain in their homes, pray the Rosary, and beg God for mercy.”

“All the enemies of the Church, whether known or unknown, will perish over the whole earth during that universal darkness, with the exception of a few who will be converted. The air shall be infected by demons who will appear under all sorts of hideous forms. “

“Religion shall be persecuted, and priests will be massacred. Churches will be closed, but only for a short time. The Holy Father shall be obliged to leave Rome.”

She then spoke of events in France that presage the increasing chastisements: “France shall fall into a frightful anarchy. The French shall have a desperate civil war in the course of which even old men will take up arms. The political parties, having exhausted their blood and their rage without any satisfactory settlement, shall agree to the last extremity to have recourse to the Holy See. Then the Pope shall send to France a special legate…In consequence of the information received, His Holiness himself shall nominate a most Christian King for the government of France.”

“After the three days of darkness, St. Peter and St. Paul, having come down from Heaven, will preach in the whole world and designate a new Pope. A great light will flash from their bodies and will settle upon the cardinal who is to become Pope. Christianity then will spread throughout the world. He is the Holy Pontiff, chosen by God to withstand the storm. At the end, he will have the gift of miracles, and his name shall be praised over the whole earth.” [Since Blessed Anna Marie foresaw that those days will “claim mainly, but not only, the enemies of religion,” the inference here is that the pope who appointed a King for France will have died, possibly a victim of the Three Day’s darkness. Perhaps he resigns but it is more likely he died. The question is:  Why is there not a conclave of cardinals to elect the new Pope? Are they also dead? This last sentence also implies the literal, heavenly assistance of the two great saints, martyred in Rome – Peter, the first pope, and Paul, the Apostle to the Gentiles, whose souls will appear to resemble their bodies.]

Blessed Anna Marie concludes this prophecy by saying, “Whole nations will come back to the Church and the face of the earth will be renewed. Russia, England, and China will come into the Church.” [It seems, then, that the earth will be renewed spiritually and materially, for many prophecies of the chastisement known as the Three Day’s darkness declare that dead bodies will outnumber the living and the world itself will be almost rent asunder by earthquakes, catastrophic flooding of oceans, seas, and rivers, and “tempests” – like tornadoes, hurricanes, and tsunamis.]

Bishop George M. Wittman (19th century)
“Very sad times are coming for the Holy Church of Jesus Christ. The Passion of Our Lord will be renewed in a most painful manner in the Church and in her supreme Head [the Pope]. Brutal hands will be laid upon his person. Secret societies will work great ruin, and they will exercise a great financial power.”

Blessed Jacinta of Fatima in 1917:

“I saw the Holy Father in a very big house, kneeling by a table, with his heard buried in his hands, and he was weeping. Outside the house, there were many people. Some of them were throwing stones, others were cursing him and using bad language. Poor Holy Father, we must pray very much for him.”

Sometime later in the same year, Jacinta said to Lucia and her brother, Francisco: “Can’t you see all those highways and roads and fields full of people, who are crying with hunger and have nothing to eat? And the Holy Father in a church praying before the Immaculate Heart of Mary? And so many people praying with him? A few days afterward, she asked Lucia: Can I say that I saw the Holy Father and all those people?” Lucia promptly answered: “No. Don’t you see that’s part of the secret? If you do, they’ll find out right away!”

Shortly before her death, Blessed Jacinta said : “If men will repent, God will pardon them, but if they do not amend their lives, there will come upon the earth the most terrible chastisement ever known.”

Pope St. Pius X (died 1914 A.D.)
In 1909: “What I have seen is terrifying! Will I be the one, or will it be a successor? What is certain is that the Pope will leave Rome and, in leaving the Vatican, he will have to pass over the dead bodies of his priests!”

In 1914, he again had a vision: ‘I saw one of my successors by name fleeing over the corpses of his brethren. He will flee to a place for a short respite where he is unknown; but he himself will die a cruel death.’

“In the Third Secret Vision, the pope walks ‘half trembling and with halting step,’ indicating advanced age. As for Pope St. Pius X’s vision, it may be that a future pope will take the name of Pius, but there is another consideration, which may or may not be of significance: Pope St. Pius X’s baptismal name was Giuseppe Sarto; in Italian, Giuseppe means Joseph – the baptismal name of Pope Benedict XVI.’” (Fatima and the Great Et Cetera: Traces ofthe Third Secret Message)

Sister Elena Aiello (20th century, died in June 1961)
The foundress of the Calabrian nuns and a stigmatic, Sister Aiello was told by the Virgin Mary:  

“Russia will march upon all the nations of Europe, particularly Italy, and will raise her flag over the dome of St. Peter’s. Italy will be severely tried by a great revolution and Rome will be purified in blood for its many sins, especially those of impurity. The flock is about to be dispersed and the Pope will suffer greatly.”

The Blessed Virgin Mary also spoke to Sr. Elena of the Three Day’s Darkness, which other prophecies indicate shall arrive toward the end of a period of great tribulation and is sent by God to end the man-made chaos on earth. If these "private" prophecies (and others mentioned here) are true, it seems that the Three Days' Darkness will come before the consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart and the promised triumph of the same.

On a Good Friday, the Virgin said: “Clouds with lightning rays of fire and a tempest of fire will pass over the whole world and the punishment will be the most terrible ever known in the history of mankind. It will last 70 hours. The wicked will be crushed and eliminated. Many will be lost because they stubbornly remained in their sins. Then they will feel the force of light over darkness. The hours of darkness are near…some nations will be purified while others will disappear entirely.” [Let us also recall that Our Lady of Fatima foretold, if Her requests are not heeded, the “annihilation of nations.”]

Our Lady of Akita (October 13, 1973; 56th anniversary of the Miracle of the Sun):

In Akita, Japan, a wooden statue of the Virgin “perspired,” wept tears, and also issued blood from its right hand – a total of 101 times.  (Akita was investigated and approved as “worthy of belief.”) Sister Agnes Sasaga, a deaf nun, interiorly heard the Virgin Mary speak to her on many occasions. In October of 1973, the Virgin of Akita said:

“As I told you, if men do not repent and better themselves, the Eternal Father will inflict a terrible punishment on all humanity. It will be a punishment greater than the deluge, such as one will never have been seen before. Fire will fall from the sky and will wipe out a great part of humanity, the good as well as the bad, sparing neither priests nor faithful.”

And so we return to the most important Marian apparition in the world’s history – to Fatima and its Great Secret, which opened with a particular Vision and closed with yet  another Vision. The last and Third Secret of Fatima includes a vision which begins with “an Angel with a flaming sword in his left hand; flashing, it gave out flames that looked as though they would set the world on fire.”  The Church and the world still await the publication of the Virgin’s words that describe this mystifying Vision.

In the Great Secret of Fatima, Our Lady foretold many terrible things, all of which were conditional upon the collective response of the Church to Her requests.  All of the warnings have come to pass except the “annihilation of nations” and the other chastisements which the Third Secret Vision portends. And why has this happened? Because like the ancients of Old Testament times, not enough people are remaining faithful to God and to the one true Church which He established.

“After the two parts which I have already explained, at the left of Our Lady and a little above, we saw an Angel with a flaming sword in his left hand; flashing, it gave out flames that looked as though they would set the world on fire; but they died out in contact with the splendour that Our Lady radiated towards him from her right hand: pointing to the earth with his right hand, the Angel cried out in a loud voice: ‘Penance, Penance, Penance!'. And we saw in an immense light that is God: ‘something similar to how people appear in a mirror when they pass in front of it' a Bishop dressed in White ‘we had the impression that it was the Holy Father'. Other Bishops, Priests, men and women Religious going up a steep mountain, at the top of which there was a big Cross of rough-hewn trunks as of a cork-tree with the bark; before reaching there the Holy Father passed through a big city half in ruins and half trembling with halting step, afflicted with pain and sorrow, he prayed for the souls of the corpses he met on his way; having reached the top of the mountain, on his knees at the foot of the big Cross he was killed by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows at him, and in the same way there died one after another the other Bishops, Priests, men and women Religious, and various lay people of different ranks and positions. Beneath the two arms of the Cross there were two Angels each with a crystal aspersorium in his hand, in which they gathered up the blood of the Martyrs and with it sprinkled the souls that were making their way to God. “

This is the third part of the Message of Our Lady…It will be very sad for everyone, not one person will rejoice at all if beforehand the world does not pray and do penance,” said Sr. Lucia, the eldest Fatima visionary, in the famous 1957 Fr. Fuentes interview. She also spoke of Our Lady’s sadness, “because no one has paid any attention to her Message, neither the good nor the bad. The good continue on their way but without giving any important to Her Message. The bad, not seeing the punishment of God actually falling upon them, continue their life of sin without even caring about the Message.”

“But believe me, Father, God will chastise the world and this will be in a terrible manner. The punishment from Heaven is imminent.”

-Copyright 2013 by Marianna C. Bartold. All Rights Reserved World-wide.


  1. Hi Marianna,
    I just wanted to note that the term, "lignum vitae," has its roots in medieval devotional literature, and in that sense translates as "tree of life," another term for the cross of Jesus. I only know this because I was geeky enough to specialize in medieval literature during grad school.

    I also want to say that I enjoy reading your blog posts very much. I discovered you a little too late for my own family's homeschooling adventure (I taught my three sons during the 90s). But I appreciate your well-written and well-researched posts, qualities that sometimes are a bit lacking in the blogosphere. God bless!

  2. Hello, Hawks:
    Thanks for sharing with my readers the meaning of "lignum vitae." Wouldn't you know, I had considered writing an explanatory paragraph or two on the book's title, but decided against it since the article is so long. Btw, I think your form of "geekiness" is awesome. :)

    It's heartening to know you're enjoying my blog posts and I do thank you for saying so. As for homeschooling, as of 1990, we were doing the same. Again, I really appreciated your comment. Thank you and may God bless you and yours always!